diversity & gender

The first source of difference and the genuine "matrix" of discrimination is that between men and women. The definitions and concepts suggested explain the distinction made between the term gender (social construction) and that of sex (biological approach). There are different theoretical approaches to this primary source of inequality in the history of humanity - the analyzes of the French anthropologist and ethnologist Françoise Héritier and her notion of "differential valence of the sexes"; that of the philosopher Juliette Grange who suggests a multidisciplinary approach; finally the analysis of the French philosopher and political scientist Camille Froidevaux-Metterie, in charge of the equality-diversity mission at the University of Reims Champagne Ardenne, who offers a phenomenological perspective by bringing together feminism and femininity. The sources of inequality between men and women can also be explained from an economic perspective with the unequal distribution of time, between professional and personal time and domestic tasks considered more "feminine".
Public policies intended to promote equality between men and women have particularly concerned the world of work to combat discrimination. In France, several laws were adopted between 2011 and 2018 with institutions responsible for respecting equality. The strategy of “role models” with “remarkable” women can inspire young girls. In Europe, the facets of gender equality have been promoted through several measures intended to fight against discrimination. The report published by UN Women each year makes it possible to measure progress or, on the contrary, to raise alert points. Two indicators are significant of violence against women: the rate of femicide and the right to abortion. The analysis and data on the phenomenon of femicide are new; they made it possible to raise awareness of public opinion and public authorities.Several examples of good practices and strategies have made it possible to fight effectively against violence against women (by suggesting short videos to illustrate it) or to promote equality between men and women in the professional world. In France, associative initiatives promote women exercising responsibilities in large companies. Around the world, the Think Tank Women’s Forum organizes an annual Global Forum to highlight efforts made by civil society, with the cooperation of public and private leaders (based on a report documenting remarkable initiatives).