• cultural capital

     set of cultural resources held by an individual and that he:she can mobilize. According to Pierre Bourdieu, it can take three forms: cultural goods that an individual possesses such as books or works of art; cultural skills attested by school diplomas (bac, etc.); finally, it can be “incorporated”, it means it is part of the individual himself as dispositions learned during the process of socialization and which are implemented during different activities (consumption cultural goods such as a play, language exchanges for example at school, school activities, etc.) ( downloaded on May 12, 2020

  • citizenship

    Citizenship- right and responsibility to participate in the economic and cultural life and in public affairs of the community with others (Convention on the National Protection of Minorities, 1995).

    "The set of practices (legal, political, economic and cultural) which define a person as a competent member - capable of participating in public affairs - of society and which, consequently, adapt the flow of resources to persons and social groups" (Turner, 1993: 2. Definition proposed by UNIMI, Migraid project, 2019).

    Social link established between a person and the State which makes him capable of exercising all the political rights attached to this quality, provided that he is not deprived of all or part of this exercise by a criminal conviction (deprivation of civil rights). Legally, a French citizen enjoys civil and political rights and fulfills obligations towards society (Vie publique, 2020)

  • citizen competence

    ability to act as responsible citizens and to participate fully in civic and social life, based on an understanding of social, economic, legal and political concepts and structures, as well as global and development developments sustainable (European Commission, 2018)

    European Commission (2018)
  • cultural pluralism

    taking into consideration, within the same social group, a plurality of identities, from which emerges a culture that is both common and plural. “Pluralism is synonymous with diversity. "Culture" in ethnology is synonymous with civilization. (… /…). Culture can be defined as "the set of uses, customs, artistic, religious, intellectual manifestations which define and distinguish a group, a society" or even as a "set of shared convictions, of ways of seeing and doing ". What is "cultural" is then "relative to the culture of a society or an individual, to its development". Apart from the reference to all the knowledge acquired in one or more fields by an individual, culture is therefore linked to the group. Culture would necessarily be pluralist; cultural pluralism, a manifestation of pluralism (Ralser, 2005)

    Ralser, 2005
  • collaboration:

    a process by which people openly exchange information on important issues and strive to find a form of action that everyone is satisfied with; it is based on the conviction that everyone can benefit from it; its outcome depends on the goodwill of the parties

    Hellriegel, Slocum, Woodman, 2004
  • cooperation

    Action to cooperate, to participate in a common work; collaboration, competition; Policy of understanding and exchanges between two States.

    Larousse, 2020
  • communication

    1. action, communicating, transmitting something
    2. the act of communicating with someone, of relating to others, generally through language; verbal exchange between a speaker and an interlocutor from which he requests a response:
    3. action of putting in relation, in connection, in contact, things
    4. connection and conversation of two correspondents by means of telecom.
    5. presentation made to a group, in a congress, information, written or oral, given to a group, an organization: Communication to the press.
    6. connection, junction, passage between two places.
    7. fact, for a personality, an organization, a company, to give itself such or such image vis-à-vis the public.
    Larousse, 2020
  • consultation (of a third party)

    when the parties get locked into head-on conflicts (one wins what the other loses), one solution is to call on a third party called in for consultation who must inspire confidence in both parties involved by arousing reciprocal motivation, by maintaining the balance between the parties, by coordinating the efforts of openness, by favoring a frank and open dialogue, while maintaining an optimum level of tension

    Hellriegel, Slocum, Woodman, 2004
  • civil resistance

    spontaneous process of civil society struggle by unarmed means, political, economic, legal, media, with the aim of overthrowing a power in place. According to Jacques Semelin, experts in international relations misunderstand these phenomena because they are used to reasoning by "categories of power, military, economic, even influence and they do not take into account what comes from societies. yet for the historian this phenomenon of the non-violent struggle against dictatorships explains the reasons for action of all dissidents in the East and also makes it possible to understand the revolts of the Arab Spring in 2011 or the mass movement against President Marcos in 1986 in the Philippines. The means have just changed: the Internet now plays the role of the underground press and the radio for subversive ends

    Semelin, 2011
  • Co-development

    any development aid action whatever its nature and whatever the field in which it intervenes, in which migrants living in France participate, whatever the modalities. Return assistance concerns several hundred people per year which is very marginal. Co-development is a fairly recent concept which consists of supporting the return of migrants to their country of origin so that they participate in the development of their country. . Cooperation is part of a development aid policy for countries in the North with regard to countries in the South. (Court of Auditors, 2005)

    Cour des comptes, 2005
  • Cooperation

    relations developed by one or more States with one or more foreign States. These relationships materialize through the signing of an agreement. Cooperation covers all actions that contribute to the institutional, economic, social and cultural development of the least favored countries. Through the exchange and partnership relations it generates, it contributes to strengthening democracy and dialogue between peoples. It can also concern initiatives that affect the economic, tourist or cultural promotion of the community, or emergency aid, for example

    Ministry of Employment and Solidarity, 2009
  • Cultural appropriation

     a notion popularized in 1976 by University of Toronto professor Kenneth Coutts-Smith who spoke of "cultural colonialism". Born in Denmark in 1920, he immigrated to Canada in 1970 and stood up for the Inuit community. This caricatural approach is even contradictory because "all culture is by essence colonial". For followers of Coutts Smith, only members of that group can speak on behalf of a minority group. Groups representing minorities, for example on American campuses, have sought from an "identity politics" perspective to deconstruct academic knowledge in order to "deracialize", "degenerate" or "decolonize" it. Any field of study is reviewed from an identity prism - we re-read the story according to a particular gender, skin color or ethnic origin. Initially mocked and discredited, this strategy gained new momentum in the 2000s with the Internet and social networks for which identities are all means of targeting increasingly fragmented "audiences". " (Aureliano Tonet, 2019; Anne – Emmanuelle Berger, 1996 & Laurence Dubreuil, 2019)

    Aureliano Tonet, 2019 ; Anne–Emmanuelle Berger , 1996 &  Laurence Dubreuil, 2019
  • Communitarianism

    The term is a neologism that appeared in the 1980s, in reference to the demands of certain "minorities" in North America. Used in a rather pejorative sense, the term communitarianism designates a form of ethnocentrism or sociocentrism which gives the community (ethnic, religious, cultural, social, political, mystical, sporting, etc.) a greater value than individual, with a tendency to withdraw into oneself. This "identity", "cultural" or "community" withdrawal is accompanied by a claim to control the opinions and behavior of members of the community who are forced to belong. Often by reaction of defense and self-victimization, communitarianism opposes liberalism, individualism, rationalism, cosmopolitanism and universalism. In the most exacerbated forms of communitarianism, the world is Manichean, there are the good (those who are part of the community) and the bad (the others). It is then akin to a form of racism.

    For its defenders, no perspective exists outside the community and it is impossible to detach from its history and culture. The community then precedes the individual and makes the search for the shared ideal more important than the defense of individual freedom. For them, the state - or authority, for smaller communities - cannot be neutral or secular in matters of cultural, religious or moral choices. The values ​​serving as a reference are essentially traditional, built on a mythical or idealized past.

    The "communitarians" consider that the identity of the individual can only be built within a community in which he can find the necessary resources and self-esteem. To do this, the community must free itself from the mold of the "dominant culture" and ensure that its particularities are respected, particularly within schools. Some put forward the need to protect cultures threatened with extinction. The "liberals" believe, for their part, that in order to develop the individual does not need to rely on ethnic or racial cultures that are sources of confinement or sclerosis.


    La Toupie, 2020
  • crime against humanity

    jurists, whether in France or abroad, have developed a precise definition of crimes against humanity by categories, in order to avoid extensive interpretations. In the new French penal code, four series of crimes meet this definition: 1) genocide; 2) deportation, slavery as well as executions, kidnappings and torture when they are carried out massively and systematically; 3) crimes against humanity committed in time of war on combatants; 4) finally, conspiracy to commit such crimes. In all cases, the crimes are committed in execution of a concerted plan.

  • conspiracy 

    designates a way of thinking or an attitude which consists in abusively presenting an event or a phenomenon as being the consequence of a conspiracy organized by the authorities or by a secret organization, generally minority and elitist (state, transnational, financial, military, religious, etc.). The usually accepted explanation of the facts is replaced by an alternative interpretation which states the existence of a conspiracy with an ulterior objective. The alternative explanation is advanced without being supported by scientific reasoning. In particular, it systematically omits the elements which could contradict it and cannot refute them in an admissible manner. Like a belief, a conspiracy theory is constructed in such a way that the facts do not contradict it, but it is never proven. In addition, it is not refutable because any evidence to the contrary can be interpreted as being a forgery conceived by the conspirators, which discredits the so-called official explanations relayed by the media. As with a belief, just because a conspiracy theory cannot be rebutted does not mean that it is true. The burden of proof is reversed, while logic dictates that it is up to whoever asserts a theory to prove that it is true and not to others to refute it.


    La Toupie, 2020
  • cisgender

    person whose gender identity matches the sex assigned at birth DILCRAH, 2020)

    DILCRAH, 2020
  • coming out

    means the voluntary announcement of a sexual orientation or a gender identity to those around them. The expression comes from the English verb "to come out", which means "to get out of" - of the "closet", the place in which we "hide", where we hide our desire, where we take refuge because we are afraid of what could happen if we reveal that we are lesbian, gay, bi or trans. In a person's life, coming out is a very important moment, a decisive step in self-acceptance. Everyone remembers the day when he / she announced to his / her parents, to his / her brothers and sisters, to his / her friends, to his / her entourage, that he / she felt a desire for a person of the same sex as his / her. A very courageous act, it represents a moment when we expose ourselves, and which we often have to relive when we talk about ourselves. It may be okay, but sometimes it doesn't go as smoothly as we hoped. We don't always choose the "right" time to do it. You have to know how to surround yourself well so, in case the reaction of people is not what you expected, not to be alone.

    SOS-Homophobie, 2020
  • corporate social responsibility (CSR)

     "Commitment of companies that integrate social, environmental and economic concerns in their activities and in their interactions with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis"

    Also called corporate social responsibility, it is defined by the European Commission as the voluntary integration by companies of social and environmental concerns into their business activities and their relations with stakeholders. In other words, CSR is "the contribution of companies to the challenges of sustainable development". A company that practices CSR will therefore seek to have a positive impact on society while being economically viable. The ISO 26000 standard, an international standard defines the scope of CSR around 7 central issues: the governance of the organization; human rights ; working relationships and conditions; the environment ; fair practices; consumer issues; communities and local development (European Commission & Ministry for Economy and Finances, 2021)


    Charte de la diversité, 2004 & Commission européenne & Ministère de l'economie et des Finances, 2021
  • control & evaluation

    policy evaluation and management control are at the same time related and endowed with rather distinct personalities. The limits of formal management control systems (lack of impact monitoring, low pro-pension double-loop learning ...) are not overcome by resorting to policy evaluations. Symmetrically, the difficulties of evaluations (vagueness or ambiguity of objectives, lack and limitation of quantitative information, etc.) are not overcome in formal control systems. There is a fairly good complementarity between these two instruments: the evaluations can, for example, avoid too much focus on reductive visions of the performance that poorly or imperfectly designed control systems can give. Conversely, the systematic encryption control systems that they operate remind us that we only manage what we measure even though we can do a lot of things without measures

    Gibert, 2010
  • custom

    this notion replaces that of culture. The way of life of a group is associated with a place. We move from the cultural order to the natural order because custom creates "a second nature" by making what is cultural take for natural. Addiction makes what was foreign or strange, familiar. Rather than acculturation, it is a "process of incorporation, by acclimatization to senses and places" (Raulin, 2007). The more cosmopolitan reality within metropolitan areas and the need for social cohesion allow or even promote the expression of collective diversity, relaunching the idea of ​​custom in a radically new context, with recognition of the role of minorities in transitional processes, essential for urban cohesion both in the outskirts and in the centers of large contemporary metropolises, within which the figures of cultural diversity are decomposed and reincarnated

    Raulin, 2007
  • cosmopolitanism

    cosmopolitanism - character of that which includes elements of multiple nationalities. Doctrine of those who consider themselves "citizens of the world", a conception of which we can already find traces among the Stoics.) (Larousse, 2020)

    Different way of saying "global" or "citizen of the world". The word is more focused on the universe: "cosmos" means universe and "polis" evokes the notion of citizen. Related concepts: transnational, global, international and comparative education. All four are interdependent - all involve a comparison between the studies of one country and those of another country with an interrelation or intercommunication culturally, especially between one country and another country (Emmanuel Jean-François, 2020)

    Larousse & Emmanuel Jean-François, 2020
  • Competence portfolio

     a constantly growing file, which gathers knowledge acquired throughout life, records trainings, qualifications and certifications of newly acquired knowledge can be continuously added. This skills portfolio focuses exclusively on the knowledge, experience and skills acquired through volunteer activities (Cedefop, 2002)

    CEDEFOP, 2002
  • corporate governance

    corporate governance - this involves ensuring the conduct of a company in such a way that it is responsible, fair and open in all its dealings. Responsibility for governance rests with the company's board of directors (Banque of development of Canada)

    Banque de développement du Canada, 2021
  • cultural diversity

    “a mechanism for organizing the most productive dialogue possible between relevant pasts and desirable futures” (UNESCO, 2002, p. 11).

    There is a great variety of cultures in the world. Cultural diversity allows - and intercultural competences require - the understanding of each culture as one option among many possibilities; the ability to convey to the "other", by communicating with him, information about his own culture and to interpret information about the "other" and his culture. (Unesco, 2020)

    UNESCO, 2002 & 2020
  • cultural permutation

    the cognitive and behavioral ability of a person with intercultural skills to change language, behavior or gestures depending on who they are speaking to and the context or situation at large. This ability is especially relevant in the presence of concepts whose meaning is obvious in a particular cultural context but which require very long explanations to be understood by people not yet familiar with that context. Humor is a particularly interesting example of content requiring such an ability, given the depth of knowledge of the cultural background required of people outside a group to understand what makes group members laugh.

    Unesco, 2020
  • conspirituality

    Conspirituality is a rapidly growing web movement expressing an ideology fuelled by political disillusionment and the popularity of alternative worldviews. It has international celebrities, bestsellers, radio and TV stations. It offers a broad politico-spiritual philosophy based on two core convictions, the first traditional to conspiracy theory, the second rooted in the New Age: 1) a secret group covertly controls, or is trying to control, the political and social order, and 2) humanity is undergoing a 'paradigm shift' in consciousness. Proponents believe that the best strategy for dealing with the threat of a totalitarian 'new world order' is to act in accordance with an awakened 'new paradigm' worldview.

    Ward & Voas, 2011
  • conspiracy theory

    Conspiracy Theory: Narrative tending to attribute abusively, and to the detriment of an explanation more plausible, the origin of an event or a phenomenon with the occult action of a generally small group of individuals pursuing a goal legally or morally objectionable. In addition to showing a preference for intentionalist explanations, a conspiracy theory most often has the characteristics of challenging without real evidence the commonly accepted explanation of a given circumstance and to accuse those who would actually or supposedly have an interest.

    Bronner (ed) 2022, "Les Lumières à l'ère du numérique", Paris: French Presidency