• diversity

    All persons who differ from each other by their geographical, socio-cultural or religious origin, their age, their sex, their sexual orientation, etc., and who constitute the national community to which they belong

    Larousse 2020
  • discrimination

    unequal treatment based on a criterion prohibited by law, such as (origin, sex, age, etc.) or in an area covered by the law, such as employment, housing, etc.

    Ministry for Youth (France), 2019
  • discrimination (legal definition)

    the legal definition is stated in the article 225-1 of the penal code and depending on the area (work, housing or other), specific provisions may be provided for in other codes such as the labor code or the national education code or in specific laws. In general, for the offense of discrimination to be established and for it to result in the judicial conviction of its perpetrator (s), two cumulative conditions must be met: intervene in a specific area (rental of a property, sale , access to employment, social benefits, etc.) provided for by law; and relate to a specific reason (age, sex, origin etc.) provided for by law.

    Info-droits, 2019
  • direct or indirect discrimination

    Discrimination is direct when it is deliberate and corresponds to one or more criteria prohibited by law and, as the case may be, punishable by criminal sanction. It is indirect when a provision, a criterion, an apparently neutral practice, is likely to have the same impact as direct discrimination and to have an adverse effect on a person or a group of people because of a criterion

    Ministère de l’Ecologie solidaire, 2019
  • defence

    all the provisions aimed at ensuring, at all times, in all circumstances and against all forms of aggression, the security and integrity of the territory, as well as the life of the population

    set of measures which should allow friendly units to avoid, or to the extent possible, reduce, the effect of enemy aggression

    civil defense: all the measures prepared, implemented or coordinated by the civil authority with the aim of ensuring public order, protecting installations and resources of general interest, allowing the protection of populations and strengthening the will to defend the nation

    economic defense: aspect under the responsibility of the Ministry of the Economy which coordinates and guides the action of the ministers responsible for the production, assembly and use of various categories of resources as well as for industrial land use planning

    Etat-major de l’armée de terre (France), 1988
  • deterrence

     a method of strategy aimed at preventing, by discouraging it, any aggression constituting a direct threat against the territory or the vital interests of a power

    General Staff of the Army, 1988
  • domestic work

    a materialist feminist approach proposed by Delphy (1998) analyzes it as the constituent of a patriarchal / domestic mode of production, where women's work is appropriated by the head of the household. This conceptualization would lead to measuring exclusively the time spent on tasks performed for other members of the family (difficult to operationalize for statistical measurement purposes) and not to consider as domestic work the domestic tasks performed by people who live alone. (Ponthieux, 2015)

    Sophie Ponthieux, INSEE, 2015
  • differential valence of the sexes

     "an extremely powerful cognitive model", a heritage, transmitted from generation to generation, also by women, which characterizes a situation of "social and mental domination of the male over the female" which is "an archaic creation of the 'human spirit'

    Françoise Héritier, 2014
  • Diversity charters

    launched in France in 2004 from the two European directives (then in Europe from 2007) - the signatory organizations (legal persons) undertake to comply with specifications validated each year by the signatory companies, which must provide precise information on the way in which they have concretely implemented diversity in their recruitment strategies (before) , training (during) but also support when employees leave the company (after retirement or voluntary departures).

    Les entreprises pour la Cité, 2020
  • dropping out of school

    In Europe, the question of early school leaving (early school leaving), translated into French as "school dropout" or "school dropout" was raised during the Lisbon summit in March 2000, which aims to of the European Union “the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world”. The aim is to reduce the flow of poorly qualified students by identifying them as "early leavers" - defined as the age group of 18 to 24 years old, neither in school nor in training, and not having reached the level. 3 of the ISCED nomenclature (International Standard Classification of Education). This effort to standardize European indicators is part of a trend towards transnational harmonization of educational policies in Europe, even if these remain the responsibility of member states

    Bernard, 2017
  • diversity of learning

    a distinction is made between formal learning - valued by the Bologna process, at the initiative of the Ministries of National Education of the countries of the European Union which has made it possible to translate all diplomas and certifications in terms of skills since 2000, to allow better mobility of Europeans and non-formal and informal learning - enhanced by the Copenhagen process, at the initiative of the ministries of employment and labor since 2002, which insists on a holistic approach: school, outside school, in the workplace.

    Halba, 2020