• minorities

    the notion of minority is understood in relation to that of the majority, in law as in sociology. It includes together the notion of population group and that of territory. A definition in international law contains 6 objective elements and a subjective element (developed in point 2). The people coincide with a territorial definition; it is defined by "colonial territory". Several elements are similar between indigenous peoples and minorities such as the non-dominant position, ethnic and cultural differences in relation to the dominant society, the will to preserve and transmit their culture. The points of divergence are: the digital element because in some states, indigenous peoples constitute the majority of the population; and the ancestral ties of indigenous people to their lands, before colonization or occupation. (Ramadan, 2016)

    Ramadan, 2016
  • medias pluralism

    several media (press, television, radio, Internet) with different sensitivities, currents of thought and opinion must be able to express themselves freely within the framework of media which are accessible to all. The CSA is in particular in charge of ensuring the respect of this constitutional requirement., As the law of September 30, 1986 commits to it, which thus provides that it “ensures the respect of the pluralist expression of the currents of thought and opinion in the programs of the radio and television services, in particular for the broadcasts of political and general information ”.

    CSA, 2020
  • message

    any information written in a concise manner, in a form suitable for delivery by any means of transmission

    Army Staff, 1988)
  • masculinity

    Set of behaviors considered to be characteristic of the male sex.

    For a given group, ratio of the numbers of males to females.

    Privilege by virtue of which until 1790, in the estates, the males were preferred to the girls

    Larousse, 2020
  • masculinism

    set of ideas, demands which seek to promote the rights of men and their interests in civil society, in particular by asserting that they are victims of the "excesses" of feminism. Synonym: homism.

    defense of the dominant position of men in society and the associated privileges, based on cultural differences between men and women, justified by biological arguments. Synonyms: anti-feminism, machismo.

    in medicine, pathology of the woman who presents some of the secondary sexual attributes of the man (ex: mustache) or virilism

    La Toupie, 2020
  • machismo

     Ideology based on the idea that the man dominates the woman socially and that it is necessary, in everything, to give precedence to supposed virile virtues; behavior consistent with this ideology

    Larouse, 2020
  • multiculturalism

     a word with many meanings, depending on whether it is used in Canada, the United States, Australia, Europe or elsewhere. In Canada, Pierre Elliott Trudeau, Canadian Prime Minister, launched in 1971 a first policy intended to reflect the reality of a country which would continue to attract immigrants from all over the world (Elbaz et Helly, 2001)

    France has a particular conception of multiculturalism, which stems both from the history of nation-building and from the image it has of its culture (Agora, 2009).

    “In the French conception of this notion: one of the possible models of the integration into the political and national community of immigrant populations” (MES, 2009).

    Plural, France understood that its national unity was not contradictory with the respect for its diversity (Agora, 2009).

    French culture has a 'universal' reference because of the wealth of external contributions on which it has always been nourished. The image which best characterizes France's cultural relationship with the rest of the world, and first of all with the immigrants who have settled on its soil, is not that of forced assimilation but of a slow interbreeding, accepted and maintained, in the service of a project of permanent construction of the nation and republican society.

    Elbaz et Helly, 2001 ; Agora, 2009 & MES,2009