• pluralism

    By definition, the manifestations of pluralism are diverse and we find traces both in the right to respect for difference and in institutions. The expression refers to diversity, difference, multiplicity, particularities, taking into account identities. Pluralism can thus have several meanings and be applied in various disciplines. We often speak of "social", "religious", "political", "cultural" ... "legal" pluralism (Ralser, 2005).



    Constitutional principle (recognized in the French Constitution of the Fifth Republic of 1958), pluralism is the existence within the same system of opinions, currents of ideas and various behaviors, in political, economic, social matters , religious… Each of the groups that make up a pluralist system is supposed to show tolerance and respect towards others, to allow harmonious coexistence without the desire to assimilate other groups. In philosophy, pluralism is a doctrine which admits a plurality of beings which are multiple, independent and which cannot be reduced to a single substance. Philosophical pluralism is opposed to monism and dualism (La Toupie, 2020).

  • political pluralism

    principle which aims to ensure representation of the different socio-cultural currents of expression. The Constitutional Council considered in 1986 then in 1989 that "respect for pluralism is one of the conditions of democracy" and that, more broadly, pluralism "constitutes the foundation of democracy"

    CSA, 2020
  • positive discrimination

    the act of giving an advantage to groups in society that are often treated unfairly because of their race, gender, etc.


    Cambridge dictionnary, 2019
  • prejudice

    preconceived opinions that one adopts with regard to an individual, a group of individuals, their behavior or lifestyle which consist in categorizing them without foundation or knowledge

    commission nationale consultative des droits de l’homme (CNCDH), 2020
  • Pro-endogroup or ethnocentrism bias

    tendency to systematically favor one's group of belonging (endogroup - group of belonging resulting from the process of social categorization at a given time and in a given context, politics, religion, sport or business) during causal attribution, relative to another group (outgroup).

    The ethnocentrism bias is similar to the self-complacency bias applied to the group to which we belong or that we esteem - the successes or acts of our group are attributed to internal causes (particular dispositions), failures or Depreciated acts of our group are attributed to external causes (unforeseen external event). For the other groups: their successes are attributed to external causes, their failures to internal causes.

    This bias reflects an expectation to see our group behave according to the standards or values ​​it defends; a positive act by our group appears to us to reflect its basic thinking. The attribution error is all the stronger the longer the intergroup conflict is (historical conflict), the greater the group membership (the distinction is visible), the stronger the prejudices to the exo-group. It can have as consequences the maintenance of intergroup conflicts and the justification of violent actions against the exogroup that can go as far as its eradication (genocide).

    La Toupie, 2020
  • Pansexual & polysexual

    two synonyms appear: omni-sexuality and poly-sexuality, polysexuality is in fact another sexual orientation (or rather a variant). For a pansexual the sex or gender of an individual is not important while a polysexual may for example like men, women and transsexuals but not asexuals. Pan means all and poly several means a poly likes several genres but not all.

    Le Monde, 2019
  • Physical transition

    changing your body to match your gender identity, often in the light of social conventions. Not all trans people want to change their gender anatomically. The transition can include, in addition to changing the dress style, hormone therapy, which consists of taking hormones to change your voice, the distribution of fat, hair, etc. Surgical operations (reduction of Adam's apple, mammoplasty, phalloplasty, etc.) are possible without being systematic

    Le Monde, 2019
  • public service

    The concept is essential in France. The "defense" of the public service and the fear of its "questioning" are recurring themes in the political debate. Its perimeter varies over time and depends on how it is defined by the population and the political power at a given time. In addition, the expression designates two different elements: a mission, which is an activity of general interest, and a mode of organization consisting, directly or indirectly, in having these activities of general interest taken over by individuals. people, either public (State, local authorities, public establishments) or private, but under the control of a public entity.

    Vie-publique, 2021
  • Portfolio

    An organized set of materials that presents and verifies the skills and knowledge acquired through experience. It is particularly relevant for validating non-formal and informal learning as it allows the individual candidate to actively contribute to the collection of evidence and also offers a mix of approaches that reinforce the overall validity of the process (Cedefop, 2009).

    A portfolio is both a tool and a method for identifying and valuing formal, informal and non-formal learning in order to integrate it into their professional career. Its impact comes from two angles - in the short term, it offers a tool and a method to identify and enhance the skills acquired and developed; in the long term: train all professionals in the use of the portfolio, to enrich it by taking into account different profiles (social and professional) and origins (different statuses and country of origin) (iriv& alii, 2006)

    A portfolio can include documents such as resumes (CVs), performance appraisals, references from current and past employers, supervisors and colleagues, and photographs of completed work certified by an arbitrator. This human resources tool fulfills five main functions: an active memory, a dynamic tool for identifying and knowing skills, a collective and conservative tool, a self-assessment, and a personal database, a value given to informal skills. . (B. Lietard, CNAM, 2005)


    CEDEFOP, 2009 & iriv, 2006 & Lietard, 2005