• amalgam

    Mixture, alliance of heterogeneous and sometimes contradictory elements

    CNRTL, 2020
  • altruism

    principle or practice of disinterested concern or devotion to the well-being of others as opposed to selfishness ”(Larousse, 2011). The term is of French origin (1850-1855).

    In economics it has been proven that homo economicus is not rational and selfish, experiments have shown that human beings are capable of altruism and feelings of reciprocity towards strangers may also retaliate against those who have them. does harm, the only benefit they derive from it being the satisfaction of revenge (Paul Seabright, 2020).

    In economic theory, if the principle of rationality allows individuals to justify selfish behavior, it has been proven that many people do not resist a solicitation of donation, even if they are indifferent to the cause or should giving up an opportunity to get rich at the expense of others. The concern to perceive oneself, and to be perceived, as a morally "good" person inhabits the majority of citizens (Marie-Claire Villeval, 2020)


    Pure altruism / quasi-altruism: pure altruism means a gift of time or money without any reward of any kind in return (material or immaterial…). In practice, there is a reward and we can therefore speak of quasi-altruism. Six different types of quasi-altruism correspond to intangible objectives: quasi-altruism with intangible compensation; quasi-altruism and "game theory"; quasi-altruism in a sociobiological context with the “altruistic gene”; quasi-altruism and the "spoiled child theorem"; quasi-altruism and social pressure; quasi-altruism and patronage (notoriety) (David Kennett, 1980)

    Paul Seabright2020 & Marie-Claire Villeval,2020 & D. Kennett,1980
  • Assimilation

    the supposed or expected outcome of an immigrant integration process such as this no longer offers cultural characteristics distinct from those which are supposed to be common to the majority of the members of the host society. Assimilation, often presented as a requirement specific to the "French" model of integration, has no legal translation in France, except in the sense that nationality law considers the "lack of assimilation" of a person as susceptible to justify a decision unfavorable to his application for acquisition of French nationality: in practice, lack of assimilation essentially means either an inability to master the current use of the national language, or the effective enjoyment of a marital status incompatible with the French legal order (situation of polygamy) (Vie-publique, 2009)

    Vie-publique, 2009
  • Anti-Semitism

    “a certain perception of Jews, which can be expressed as hatred of Jews. Rhetorical and physical manifestations of anti-Semitism target Jewish and non-Jewish individuals and / or their property, Jewish institutions and religious buildings. "Manifestations of this anti-Semitism" may include targeting the State of Israel, conceived as a Jewish community. However, criticism of Israel at a level similar to that leveled at another country cannot be considered anti-Semitic. "

    contemporary examples of anti-Semitism: "Asking for, aiding or justifying the murder of Jews in the name of a radical ideology or an extremist view of religion"; "Making false, dehumanizing, demonizing or stereotypical allegations about the Jews as such or about the power of the Jews: for example, but not exclusively, the myth of a worldwide Jewish conspiracy or of Jews controlling the media, the economy , government or other institutions of society "; "Accusing the Jews as a people, or Israel as a state, of inventing or exaggerating the Holocaust" (International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance - IHRA, 2020)

    systematic hostile attitude towards Jews, people perceived as such and / or their religion (CNCDH, 2020)

    L'Alliance internationale pour la mémoire de l'Holocauste , 2020 & CNCDH, 2020
  • anti-Zionism

    To the definition below "legally non-binding anti-Semitism", adopted in plenary on May 26, 2016, the IHRA adds that manifestations of this anti-Semitism "may include the targeting of the State of Israel, designed as a Jewish community. However, criticism of Israel on a level similar to that leveled against another country cannot be considered anti-Semitic


    L'Alliance internationale pour la mémoire de l'Holocauste , 2020
  • agenre

    person who does not recognize himself in any gender identity. Variation of the non-binarity. In particular, a non-binary person does not recognize themselves in the gender assigned to them at birth, but not entirely in the opposite gender. Is outside the norms of masculine and feminine

    Le Monde, 2019
  • administration

    According to the code of relations between the public and the administration, the administration includes "the state administrations, the territorial communities, their administrative public establishments and the bodies and persons of public law and of private law in charge of an administrative public service mission "

    Vie-publique, 2021
  • Acculturation

    in ethnology, modifications which occur in a cultural group [concerning the way of acting, perceiving, judging, working, thinking, speaking] as a result of permanent contact with a group (generally larger) belonging to a other culture. '' (Mucch. Sc. soc. 1969);

    in sociology: the process by which an individual learns the behavior patterns, models and norms of a group so as to be accepted in that group and participate in it without conflict. '' (Mucch. Sc. soc. 1969).


    CNRTL, 2021