• superdiversity

    Several physical characteristics (disability or age for example), psychological (mental illness or temperament for example) and social (sex and socioeconomic status for example) are used to differentiate people where several differences converge simultaneously (Vertovec, 2007)

    Other authors speak of "diversity on several levels" - some diversities are part of the individual himself and cannot be changed (innate), and others are linked to elements that have been developed over time. time (acquired). A graphical model of these multi-level diversities has been developed by Gardenswartz & Rowe (1998) and can be used to identify the diversity at play in a given situation.

    This model identifies four levels of diversity: personality (personal level);the interior dimension;the external dimension;The organizational dimension. The heart of the problem is the level considered intangible or the “minimum minimorum”.(definitions proposed by UNIMI, Migraid project, 2019)

  • social capital

    a collection of resources found in family relationships and in local organizations. It is useful for the cognitive and social development of a child or youth. In a collective approach, it brings together all the characteristics of social organization such as networks, norms and social trust that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit (Putnam, 1995). A corollary of the theory of human capital, the main reference in the field of social capital is the American sociologist Robert Putnam (2000). It brings together social relationships, business relationships and social relationships. The privileged place of constitution of this capital is the family. But institutions, such as clubs or associations, also play an important role. Building up a network of "diverse" cultural, social and professional relationships allows you to open up horizons that can be useful for your personal, social or professional life.

    For effective social capital to exist, there needs to be a close and stable social system and a founding ideology. These are important factors in creating norms and real trust (Coleman, 1988)

    In public discourse, a society's ability to articulate collective values, reflect on social issues and develop political goals (Wuthnow, 1991)

    Individual characteristic and sum of real and potential resources that can be mobilized by belonging to organizations and personal networks. Each individual is different in the size and scope of their social networks and the number of members of their networks. Social capital corresponds to the norms of reciprocity and trust that are embodied in networks of essentially non-profit associations, and other forms of socialization (Anheier, 2005)

    A "civic or generalized" social capital is defined as "the totality of associative relations which, producing a public spirit and a generalized interpersonal trust, become a social source, because they bring benefits to both individuals and social institutions" (Donati and Colozzi, 2006)

  • Social justice

     it is "based on equal rights for all peoples and the possibility for all human beings without discrimination to benefit from economic and social progress everywhere. Promoting social justice is not just about increasing incomes and creating jobs. It is also a question of rights, dignity and freedom of expression for workers, as well as economic, social and political autonomy ". The ILO Declaration on Social Justice for a Fair Globalization. (International Labor Organization, June 10, 2008) has established an essential foundation with an agenda based on four pillars - employment, social protection, social dialogue, and fundamental rights and principles at work. Indeed, the ILO considers that "social development and social justice are essential to the establishment and maintenance of peace and security among and within nations, and that conversely there can be no neither social development nor social justice if peace and security are not established and if all human rights and fundamental freedoms are not respected. General and sustained economic growth, within the context of sustainable development, is essential for the sustainability of social development and social justice. "

    United Nations, 2020
  • stereotypes

    In social psychology, a stereotype is a frozen caricatural representation, a received idea, a ready-made opinion accepted and conveyed without reflection, concerning a human group or a social class. Synonyms are: prejudice, cliché, cliché. The concept was introduced by the American journalist and political commentator Walter Lippman (1889-1974) in his work "Political Opinion" (1922) to qualify "mental images" resistant to any change or to any questioning.

    Stereotypes are standardized social representations that rigidly and persistently categorize a particular human group. By offering a simplifying reading grid, based on preconceptions, they distort and impoverish social reality. The aim is to rationalize the behavior to be taken towards the group in question. This mode of reasoning makes it possible to avoid having an argued speech and criticizing those that one does not know. The stereotype is constructed by contrast effect by accentuating differences between the social group concerned and others or by assimilation effect by highlighting similarities within the group.

    Stereotypes that refer to the ethnic or cultural characteristics of foreigners fuel racist and xenophobic attitudes and are the opposite of humanist ideas about the universality of human rights. (La Toupie, 2020)

    La Toupie, 2020
  • symbolic capital

    acquired "by sponsoring events, by showing such or such friendship, by being able to mobilize such or such professional or social network"

    Korman, 2020
  • social networks

    website that allows Internet users to create a personal page in order to share and exchange information, photos or videos with their community of friends and their network of acquaintances.

    l'internaute, 2020
  • soft power

    invented twenty years ago by Joseph Nye, the concept designates "the methods of influence developed by a State which are not based on violence but on ideological or cultural elements in order to satisfy the interests of the nation who implements them ”. He can use brutal methods like coercion, or on the contrary use finer means like incitement or seduction. In any case, it seeks to influence political decisions by making certain choices appear as priorities, so that they are imposed by their credibility and legitimacy.

    Nye, 1990
  • sexism

    Discriminatory attitude adopted against the opposite sex (mainly by men who claim the best role in the couple and in society, at the expense of women relegated to the background, exploited as an object of pleasure, etc.).

    CNRTL, 2012
  • sexual harassment

    it is characterized by the fact of repeatedly imposing on a person remarks or behaviors with a sexual or sexist connotation, which: undermine their dignity because of their degrading or humiliating nature, or create against an intimidating, hostile or offensive situation.

    Sexual harassment is any form of serious pressure (even not repeated) with the real or apparent aim of obtaining a sexual act, for the benefit of the perpetrator or a third party.

    In both cases, sexual harassment is punished regardless of the links between the perpetrator and his victim, even outside the professional environment (harassment by a relative, a neighbor, etc.). If the perpetrator has had physical contact with you, it could be sexual assault, which is a more severely punished offense than sexual harassment., 2021
  • summary executions and genocide

    We can distinguish two hypotheses. First, in the context of a genocide, when one wants, in application of a concerted plan, to destroy a national, ethnic, racial or religious group: the nature of the victims is then taken into account. Then, when summary, massive and systematic executions are carried out, regardless of the quality of the victim, depending on the political, philosophical, racial or religious motives which drive the authors of the concerted plan at the origin of the executions.

  • Sexuation

    Sexuation- le choix du sexe qui est déterminé non par les identifications (le genre), mais par les modalités de jouissance dans un rapport au phallus et à la castration (toute phallique ou pas-toute phallique); «La psychanalyse lacanienne sait que certains hommes sont des femmes»

    Macary-Garipuy, 2006
  • sexual violence

    this can include rape and / or sexual harassment. Rape is any sexual intercourse without consent. Sexual harassment is any unwanted and / or unwelcome sexual behavior. Harassment can be verbal, non-verbal and / or physical, implicit or explicit. It can be sexual advances, sexual demands, demand for sexual favors, looks, sexual gestures or sounds, whistling, etc. Sexual violence can happen in any place (private, public, professional), to anyone, by anyone, including a partner or husband, colleague, friend, acquaintance or stranger. People with unclear gender identity experience it more often.

    Le Monde, 2019
  • segregation (of metropolitan areas)

    using the example of American urban areas, the high levels of urban segregation of blacks is the result of five overlapping factors.

    non-racial economic and demographic conditions that explain residential patterns.

    behaviors reflecting the preferences (which in a pejorative sense might be called “prejudices”) of blacks and whites regarding the desired racial makeup of the neighborhood in which they would like to live.

    discriminatory (and illegal) behavior on the part of real estate market players, including members of institutions involved in this process (eg real estate agents, mortgage brokers, etc.).


    government institutions through which the real estate allocation process operates, having the effect of encouraging or facilitating residential segregation.

    public policies, which have a direct or indirect effect on the property allocation process.

    Massey et Denton quoted by Turner et Wolman, 2006
  • Smart cities

    Beyond their strong heterogeneity, their political load, their political instrumentalisation, we can however observe some common features between most of the models, in particular three main ones: the use and exploitation of big data, modernization even the transformation of urban services and the display of a political will to rely on the participation of the inhabitants.

    Emmanuel Eveno, 2018
  • Storytelling

    art of telling

    A critical interpretation proposed by Christian Salmon (2007) denounces a "machine for making images" and "for formatting minds". It would not be a social phenomenon but the central "instrument of financial and power elites" that would seize this "weapon of control and manipulation of consumers and citizens". It would therefore be an "injunction born of the market economy" initially used as a marketing technique which would have spread to the authorities and political bodies.

    A positive definition is suggested by Nelly Quemener (Université de Laval, 2012) who suggests "thinking about the relationship between narration, narrative, language and modes of recognition and existence of individuals before concluding that there is a formatting of minds".

    She insists that "this contemporary narrative organizes in complex ways at different levels of meaning across various forms of media." Counter-powers exist in democracies to help enlighten the citizen, she believes that a "power participates audiences in contemporary media and cultures" (citing Jenkins, 2008).

    It is based on the work of Katz and Lazarsfeld (1955) who “contradicted the thesis of an omnipotence of centralizing power and the reunification of the media in an atomized and irrational society”. There are indeed “multiple levels and mediations between the media and the decisions made by citizens and consumers”.

    It evokes a "public space that is constantly reconfigured with the circulation of power in dispersed centers, the processes of visibility / invisibilization and the opening of subcultural spaces", citing the work of Beck (2001).

    The story is therefore not "an artificial construction or a fiction imposed by bodies of unchallenged power" but a "means of apprehending the real" available to audiences (De Certeau, 1990).

    Storytelling can therefore be a “place of controversy, defense and destabilization of identities” thanks to “often ambivalent constructions between reality and fiction”. This "storytelling is then at the heart of a struggle for recognition in public space", "one of the performative modes", "a means of contestation among other established models".


    The story remains at "the heart of the definition of power and performativity". The citizen is confronted with a “multiplication of the possible versions of oneself” and finally chooses the story which seems to him the most convincing, he therefore fully exercises his citizenship, possible in a democracy with a plurality of political parties and the media.

    Salmon, 2007 ; Nelly Quemener, Université de Laval, 2012
  • smart power

    The strategies of smart power combine instruments of hard power such as coercion and money, and those of soft power such as seduction and persuasion. A “great power” is no longer just a country capable of winning a war, because in the information age success also depends on the story being told (“storytelling”). This concept of smart power is important for understanding the balance of power in the 21st century. Its strategies must include information and communication strategies. The definition of standards and issues thus becomes more important.

    Joseph Nye "The future of power" Public affairs, 2011